Two breath compounds could be associated with larynx cancer

Participants exhaled into tedlar bags after fasting for more than eight hours.Credit: SINC[Click to enlarge image]Researchers at the Rey Juan Carlos University and the Alcorcn Hospital (Madrid) have compared the volatile substances exhaled by eleven people with cancer of larynx, with those of another twenty healthy people. The results show that the concentrations of certain molecules, mainly ethanol and 2-butanone, are higher in individuals with carcinoma, therefore they act as potential markers of the disease.Human breath contains thousands of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and some of them can be used as non-invasive biomarkers for various types of head and neck cancers as well as cancer of the larynx.This was shown in the experiment carried out by scientists from the Rey Juan Carlos University (URJC) with 31 volunteers: 20 healthy subjects (half of which are smokers) and 11 with cancer of the larynx in various phases of the disease and who are being treated in the Alcorcn Hospital in Madrid.The results, published in the journal Chromatographia, reveal that the air exhaled by the more seriously ill patients – in a stage called T3 – contains different concentrations of seven compounds compared with the levels of healthy people or even those with a less developed tumour (T1).Specifically, in the graphics of individuals with advanced cancer, the peaks that represent ethanol (C2H6O) and 2-butanone (C4H8O) are particularly significant. These two compounds therefore become potential markers of laryngeal carcinoma.”At the moment it is still a preliminary study and a wider sample has to be obtained,” Rafael Garca, professor of Chemical Engineering at the URJC and co-author of the study told SINC, “but it is a step in the right direction, an alternative with regard to identifying biomarkers, not only for this type of cancer but for other more prevalent and serious ones such as lung cancer, where early detection is key”.As part of the experiment, the researchers asked the participants to breathe into tedlar bags after fasting for at least eight hours so there was no leftover food or drink on their breath.The samples were then analysed with solid phase micro-extraction, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques, which enable very small amounts of a substance to be separated and identified. The concentrations are around or slightly above the equipment’s detection limits (40 nanograms/mL), which is equivalent to 40 ppb or parts per billion.The ultimate aim of the research is to “create an electronic nose that can be used in hospitals and health centres for the early detection of these types of diseases,” concluded Rafael Garca. This team, together with other Spanish and foreign research groups, is working hard to develop sensors capable of detecting diseases through breath analysis.Head and neck cancers represent between 5% and 10% of all malignant tumours currently diagnosed in Spain. Every year nearly half a million new cases are detected worldwide, mainly attributed to tobacco and alcohol use and approximately 90% are laryngeal cancer. The study also identified four markers in the exhaled breath that are typical of smokers, such as benzene and furfural.Story Source:The above story is based on materials provided by Plataforma SINC. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.Journal Reference:Rafael A. Garca, Victoria Morales, Sergio Martn, Estela Vilches, Adolfo Toledano. Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis in Breath Air in Healthy Volunteers and Patients Suffering Epidermoid Laryngeal Carcinomas. …

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Variability of contact precaution policies in U.S. emergency departments

Date:February 7, 2014Source:Brigham and Women’s HospitalSummary:In a study, researchers surveyed a random sample of U.S. emergency departments and found substantial variation in the adoption of policies relating to contact precautions.In a study published in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology on February 7, 2014, Daniel J. Pallin, MD, MPH and Jeremiah D. Schuur, MD, MS, surveyed a random sample of US emergency departments (EDs) and found substantial variation in the adoption of policies relating to contact precautions.While most EDs have policies relating to contact precautions when specific organisms are suspected, a minority have such policies for the symptoms often caused by those organisms. This indicated that institutional policies do not mirror consensus recommendations by the CDC, the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America and other national bodies.The authors write, “The variation in policy that we observed leads us to recommend that emergency medicine organizations, such as the American College of Emergency Physicians, should enact policies addressing contact precautions in the ED. “Story Source:The above story is based on materials provided by Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.Journal Reference:Daniel J. Pallin, Carlos A. Camargo, Deborah S. Yokoe, Janice A. …

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Potential biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease

Date:January 31, 2014Source:Brigham and Women’s HospitalSummary:Researchers identify abnormal expression of genes, resulting from DNA relaxation, that can be detected in the brain and blood of Alzheimer’s patients.In a study published this week in Nature Neuroscience, Bess Frost, PhD, and co-authors, identify abnormal expression of genes, resulting from DNA relaxation, that can be detected in the brain and blood of Alzheimer’s patients.The protein tau is involved in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. Previous studies have implicated DNA damage as a cause of neuron, or cell, death in Alzheimer’s patients. Given that DNA damage can change the structure of DNA within cells, the researchers examined changes in DNA structure in tau-induced neurodegeneration. They used transgenic flies and mice expressing human tau to show that DNA is more relaxed in tauopathy. They then identified that the relaxation of tightly wound DNA and resulting abnormal gene expression are central events that cause neurons to die in Alzheimer’s disease.The authors write, “Our work suggests that drugs that modify DNA structure may be beneficial for treating Alzheimer’s Disease.” The authors recommend, “A greater understanding of the pathway of DNA relaxation in tauopathies will allow us to identify the optimal target and explore the therapeutic potential of epigenetic-based drugs.”Story Source:The above story is based on materials provided by Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.Journal Reference:Bess Frost, Martin Hemberg, Jada Lewis, Mel B Feany. Tau promotes neurodegeneration through global chromatin relaxation. Nature Neuroscience, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3639 Cite This Page:MLA APA Chicago Brigham and Women’s Hospital. “Potential biomarkers for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 January 2014. …

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Key genes for increasing oil content in plant leaves identified

Related Links Plant Cell paper: Dual Role for Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase: Enhancing Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diverting Fatty Acids from Membrane Lipids to Triacylglycerol in Arabidopsis Leaves [http://www.plantcell.org/content/early/2013/09/26/tpc.113.117358.abstract] Share this story on Facebook, Twitter, and Google: Other social bookmarking and sharing tools: | Story Source: The above story is based on materials provided by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. For further information, please contact the source cited above. Journal References: Jilian Fan, Chengshi Yan, Changcheng Xu. Phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-mediated triacylglycerol biosynthesis is crucial for protection against fatty acid-induced cell death in growing tissues of Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal, 2013; DOI: 10.1111/tpj.12343 Jilian Fan, Chengshi Yan, Xuebin Zhang and Changcheng Xu1. Dual Role for Phospholipid:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase: Enhancing Fatty Acid Synthesis and Diverting Fatty Acids from Membrane Lipids to Triacylglycerol in Arabidopsis Leaves[C][W]. The Plant Cell, 2013 DOI: 10.​1105/​tpc.​113.​117358 Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one of the following formats: APA MLA Note: If no author is given, the source is cited instead. enlargeClick on the image to download a high-resolution version. …

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Hubble finds source of Magellanic Stream: Astronomers explore origin of gas ribbon wrapped around our galaxy

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Inside the minds of murderers: Impulsive murderers much more mentally impaired than those who kill strategically

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Clinical sequencing technology identifies new targets in diverse cancers

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