South African healthcare workers face greater risk for TB, HIV

A large-scale survey of South African healthcare workers has revealed major gaps in workplace protection against tuberculosis, HIV and hepatitis, according to a University of British Columbia health researcher.Presenting findings today at the 2014 annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Dr. Annalee Yassi says issues such as confidentiality, stigma, technological capacity and staff training need to be addressed while improving hospital resources and protocols.Preliminary results of the 2012 baseline survey of more than 1,000 healthcare workers in three hospitals show that more than 68 per cent of patient care staff had never been screened for TB; nearly 20 per cent were not vaccinated against hepatitis; and 55 per cent did not wear respiratory protection when needed. Despite South Africa’s high TB and HIV rates — 18 per cent of its adult population is HIV-positive — and risk of hepatitis transmission, recapping of used needles before disposal and washing and reusing of gloves were common, with more than 20 per cent surveyed reporting needlestick injury or unprotected exposure to bodily fluids.Yassi, who is helping South Africa implement occupational health guidelines developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), says healthcare workers in developing countries face greater health challenges while serving significantly more patients.”In addition to massive workloads, healthcare workers in developing countries are more likely to get sick from the workplace,” says Yassi, a professor in UBC’s School of Population and Public Health, noting that healthcare workers in South Africa are at three times the risk of contracting TB than other South Africans, and more than seven times more likely to be hospitalized for drug-resistant TB. A 2013 WHO estimate showed South Africans were almost 300 times more likely to contract TB than Americans.”Considerable progress is being made, including better standard operating procedures and screening,” says Yassi. “But there’s much more we can do to ensure a healthy workplace for the international health care workforce.”Story Source:The above story is based on materials provided by University of British Columbia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Detailed look at HIV in action: Researchers gain a better understanding of the virus through electron microscopy

The human intestinal tract, or gut, is best known for its role in digestion. But this collection of organs also plays a prominent role in the immune system. In fact, it is one of the first parts of the body that is attacked in the early stages of an HIV infection. Knowing how the virus infects cells and accumulates in this area is critical to developing new therapies for the over 33 million people worldwide living with HIV. Researchers at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) are the first to have utilized high-resolution electron microscopy to look at HIV infection within the actual tissue of an infected organism, providing perhaps the most detailed characterization yet of HIV infection in the gut.The team’s findings are described in the January 30 issue of PLOS Pathogens.”Looking at a real infection within real tissue is a big advance,” says Mark Ladinsky, an electron microscope scientist at Caltech and lead author of the paper. “With something like HIV, it’s usually very difficult and dangerous to do because the virus is an infectious agent. We used an animal model implanted with human tissue so we can study the actual virus under, essentially, its normal circumstances.”Ladinsky worked with Pamela Bjorkman, Max Delbrck Professor of Biology at Caltech, to take three-dimensional images of normal cells along with HIV-infected tissues from the gut of a mouse model engineered to have a human immune system. The team used a technique called electron tomography, in which a tissue sample is embedded in plastic and placed under a high-powered microscope. Then the sample is tilted incrementally through a course of 120 degrees, and pictures are taken of it at one-degree intervals. All of the images are then very carefully aligned with one another and, through a process called back projection, turned into a 3-D reconstruction that allows different places within the volume to be viewed one pixel at a time.”Most prior electron microscopy studies of HIV have focused on the virus itself or on infection of laboratory-grown cell cultures,” says Bjorkman, who is also an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. …

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What’s Covered Under Workers’ Compensation?

When someone is injured on the job, or suffers an illness because of job-related conditions, that worker is entitled to file a workers’ compensation claim. Even though all states have somewhat different workers’ compensation laws, workers can count on being able to receive workers’ compensation when they suffer certain types of injuries or illnesses.Work-Related InjuriesPeople can receive workers’ compensation benefits when they suffer an injury that is work-related, but the term “work-related” is sometimes more complicated than it might first appear. In general, any injury you suffer as a result of your job duties, or those that arise while doing your job, are covered under work-related injuries.For example, a truck driver who is injured while loading cargo is clearly performing work-related tasks, and would be covered under workers’ compensation. Similarly, someone who is on a business trip or who is attending a conference to represent her employer will also be entitled to workers’ compensation should she suffer an injury.On the other hand, injuries a worker suffers that aren’t related to the job are not usually covered by workers’ compensation. So, for example, if you get into a car accident while on your way to work, you won’t be able to file a workers’ compensation claim. Though you have to travel to your job in order to perform your duties, the act of commuting to and from your job is not considered part of your employment responsibilities.Additionally, workers who suffer self-inflicted injuries, injuries that arise as a result of intoxication or drug use, or injuries suffered as a result of fighting with other workers, are not typically covered by workers’ compensation.Work-Related IllnessesJust as with injuries or accidents, people who want to file a workers’ compensation claim for an illness must be able to show that the illness occurred as a result of the work environment. These types of illnesses are often referred to as “occupational diseases.” An occupational disease is an illness or chronic medical condition that you get specifically because of your job.For example, workers in the health care or medical sectors are often exposed to dangerous diseases, chemicals, or hazardous situations. Those who are infected with a disease, such as HIV, because they were exposed to it in the workplace can file a workers’ compensation claim. Other medical workers might be able to file a claim if, for example, they were exposed to high levels of radiation as a result of working near radiological equipment.Mental IllnessesWorkers’ compensation goes beyond physical injuries and illnesses, and also covers mental health problems that arise as a result of employment. As with physical injuries, mental illnesses or psychological disorders an employee suffers must arise out of workplace conditions in order for the employee to be able to receive workers’ compensation benefits.For example, a worker who witnesses a workplace accident that leads to someone being seriously injured or killed might suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. …

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Geranium extracts inhibit HIV-1

Extracts of the geranium plant Pelargonium sidoides inactivate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and prevent the virus from invading human cells. In the current issue of “PLOS ONE,” scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen report that these extracts represent a potential new class of anti-HIV-1 agents for the treatment of AIDS.Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Mnchen demonstrate that root extracts of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) contain compounds that attack HIV-1 particles and prevent virus replication. A team spearheaded by Dr. Markus Helfer and Prof. Dr. Ruth Brack-Werner from the Institute of Virology and Prof. Dr. Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin from the Analytical BioGeoChemistry research unit (BGC) performed a detailed investigation of the effects of PS extracts on HIV-1 infection of cultured cells. They demonstrated that PS extracts protect blood and immune cells from infection by HIV-1, the most widespread type of HIV. PS extracts block attachment of virus particles to host cells and thus effectively prevent the virus from invading cells. …

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How to Become an Exercise Addict

Free!Healthy LivingEmail NewsletterGet the latest health, fitness, anti-aging and nutrition news, plus special offers, insights and more from Health.com! 16 Ways to Lose Weight Fast More 16 Signs You May Have HIV More 10 Ways to Soothe a Sore Throat More Best Superfoods for Weight Loss More 25 Healthy Sweet Potato Recipes More The Top Fat-Burning Foods More

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How to Slim Down at Any Age

Free!Healthy LivingEmail NewsletterGet the latest health, fitness, anti-aging and nutrition news, plus special offers, insights and more from Health.com! 16 Ways to Lose Weight Fast More 16 Signs You May Have HIV More 10 Ways to Soothe a Sore Throat More Best Superfoods for Weight Loss More 25 Healthy Sweet Potato Recipes More The Top Fat-Burning Foods More

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Get A Superstar Body

Free!Healthy LivingEmail NewsletterGet the latest health, fitness, anti-aging and nutrition news, plus special offers, insights and more from Health.com! Advertisement 16 Ways to Lose Weight Fast More 16 Signs You May Have HIV More 10 Ways to Soothe a Sore Throat More Best Superfoods for Weight Loss More 25 Healthy Sweet Potato Recipes More The Top Fat-Burning Foods More

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AIDS vaccine candidate appears to completely clear virus from the body in monkeys

Sep. 11, 2013 — An HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate developed by researchers at Oregon Health & Science University appears to have the ability to completely clear an AIDS-causing virus from the body. The promising vaccine candidate is being developed at OHSU’s Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute. It is being tested through the use of a non-human primate form of HIV, called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV, which causes AIDS in monkeys. Following further development, it is hoped an HIV-form of the vaccine candidate can soon be tested in humans.These research results were published online today by the journal Nature. The results will also appear in a future print version of the publication.”To date, HIV infection has only been cured in a very small number of highly-publicized but unusual clinical cases in which HIV-infected individuals were treated with anti-viral medicines very early after the onset of infection or received a stem cell transplant to combat cancer,” said Louis Picker, M.D., associate director of the OHSU Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute. “This latest research suggests that certain immune responses elicited by a new vaccine may also have the ability to completely remove HIV from the body.”The Picker lab’s approach involves the use of cytomegalovirus, or CMV, a common virus already carried by a large percentage of the population. In short, the researchers discovered that pairing CMV with SIV had a unique effect. They found that a modified version of CMV engineered to express SIV proteins generates and indefinitely maintains so-called “effector memory” T-cells that are capable of searching out and destroying SIV-infected cells.T-cells are a key component of the body’s immune system, which fights off disease, but T-cells elicited by conventional vaccines of SIV itself are not able to eliminate the virus. The SIV-specific T-cells elicited by the modified CMV were different. …

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Translating nature’s library yields drug leads for aids, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease

Sep. 9, 2013 — An ingredient in a medicinal tea brewed from tree bark by tribal healers on the South Pacific island of Samoa — studied by scientists over the last 25 years — is showing significant promise as a drug lead in the long-sought goal of eliminating the AIDS virus from its sanctuaries in the body and thus eradicating the disease, a scientist said.Speaking at the 246th National Meeting & Exhibition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), Paul A. Wender, Ph.D., described efficient new ways of making prostratin and related leads, as well as other drug candidates first discovered in sea creatures, that appear even more effective for AIDS and have applications for Alzheimer’s disease and cancer.In his presentation, Wender focused on fundamentally new approaches to some of the most serious unmet health challenges of our time. He is with Stanford University. They include the eradication of AIDS, developing medicines that stop the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and treating resistant cancer — the major cause of chemotherapy failure for most cancers.Wender leads a scientific team at Stanford University that first developed a way to make the tea ingredient, prostratin, in large amounts from readily available ingredients. He described how that initial synthesis broke down a major barrier to probing prostratin’s antiviral effects. Until then, scientists had to extract prostratin from the bark of the Samoan mamala tree, and only tiny and variable amounts were so obtained. Samoa is where another scientist, Paul Cox, in 1987 heard a native healer praise mamala bark tea as a remedy for viral hepatitis. It led scientists at the National Cancer Institute to analyze the bark and identify prostratin as a key ingredient. Wender’s synthesis of prostratin opened the door to research on the substance and enabled his team to change prostratin’s architecture.”We now have made synthetic variants of prostratin, called analogs, that are 100 times more potent than the natural product,” Wender said. …

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Simian foamy viruses readily occur between humans and macaques in urban Bangladesh

Sep. 4, 2013 — Throughout Asia, humans and monkeys live side-by side in many urban areas. An international research team from the University of Washington, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Jahangirnagar University has been examining transmission of a virus from monkeys to humans in Bangladesh, one of the world’s most densely populated countries. The scientists have found that some people in these urban areas are concurrently infected with multiple strains of simian foamy virus (SFV), including strains from more than one source (recombinant) that researchers originally detected in the monkeys.Simian foamy viruses, which are ubiquitous in nonhuman primates, are retroviruses like HIV. Retroviruses are shown to exhibit high levels of mutation and recombination — a potentially explosive combination.Their paper, “Zoonotic simian foamy virus in Bangladesh reflects diverse patterns of transmission and co-infection” published in the Sept. 4 issue of Emerging Microbes and Infections (EMI), characterizes the simian retroviral strains that are being zoonotically transmitted and provides a glimpse into the behaviors of humans and monkeys contributing to the infections.By analyzing what is happening at the human-primate interface, the researchers hope to protect humans from another deadly outbreak like HIV. Their focus is in Asia because it is a continent that has witnessed the emergence of several infectious diseases in the past decade. Asia also has a volatile combination of an increasingly mobile and immunocompromised population living in proximity with animals.Since more humans have been shown to have been infected with SFV through primate contact than with any other simian-borne virus, the researchers reason that pinpointing the factors that influence SFV transmission and infection are important to a general understanding of how viruses can jump the species barrier.”If we want to understand how, where and why these primate viruses are being transmitted, we need to be looking at SFV in Asia where millions of people and tens of thousands of macaques are interacting everyday and where we estimate that thousands of people could be infected with strains of SFV,” said Lisa Jones-Engel, a primatologist with the National Primate Research Center at the University of Washington and the project leader. “These Asian rhesus macaques are Darwinian superstars. They are very responsive to change and, unlike many other species of primates, they are going to continue to thrive in human-altered habitats.”Jones-Engel said if researchers had been on the ground 50 years ago, they may have seen how simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) crossed the species barrier resulting in HIV.”We have been playing catch up with the SIV-HIV question for years,” she said. …

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HIV: Predicting treatment response more accurately

Sep. 2, 2013 — The HI virus is feared, not least, because of its great adaptability. If the virus mutates at precisely the point targeted by a drug, it is able to neutralise the attack and the treatment fails. To minimise these viral defence mechanisms, doctors treat patients with modern combination therapies involving the simultaneous administration of several drugs. This approach forces the virus to run through a series of mutations before it becomes immune to the drugs.Share This:Sequential nature of mutations”It is not easy to decide which of the over 30 combination therapies is best suited to a patient,” says Huldrych Günthard from Zurich University Hospital, president of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. The decision is based on the prospects of success and therefore on the genetic make-up of a particular virus. The established prediction models already consider the genetics of the virus but they neglect that the virus continuously evolves through sequential mutations.Choosing the right therapy for each patientIn cooperation with the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, Niko Beerenwinkel and his team from ETH Zurich have now developed a more accurate prediction model based on a probabilistic method. This model calculates the possible evolutionary paths of the virus and yields a new predictive measure for the development of resistances: the so-called individualised genetic barrier. When applied retrospectively to 2185 patients of the HIV Cohort, the new approach made it possible to predict treatment success more accurately compared to the existing models. “We are now introducing the individualised genetic barrier in a pilot project and hope that it will help us in the future to identify the best therapy for each patient,” says Günthard.The Swiss HIV Cohort StudyEstablished in 1988, the Cohort Study aims to generate knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS as well as to improve the care given to patients. …

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HIV/AIDS vaccines: Defining what works

July 18, 2013 — Designing an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is something of a paradox: a good vaccine would be safe and look enough like HIV to kick-start the immune system into neutralizing the virus — but the problem is that this is exactly what the human immune system has trouble doing even when it’s exposed to the real thing.Now a team of researchers led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA has developed a strategy for inducing a key part of an effective immune response to HIV. By tracing the evolution of HIV-recognizing molecules called antibodies taken from the blood of rare individuals whose immune systems are naturally able to target and neutralize the virus, they may have found a way to replicate this for everybody.At a talk next week at the American Crystallographic Association meeting in Hawaii, the team will present multiple crystal structures, which like detailed architectural blueprints show how the virus interacts with components of the immune system. Examining these structures has allowed them to reverse engineer molecules that specifically activate the precursors of effective, neutralizing antibodies against the virus — molecules that may be components of a future vaccine against HIV.”What we tried to do was to learn how those [effective] antibodies developed over the course of natural infection and attempt to guide the immune response in the direction of what we know works in certain HIV-infected individuals,” said structural biologist Jean-Philippe Julien, who is presenting the work in Hawaii.He conducted the research under the direction of Professors Ian Wilson and William Schief of The Scripps Research Institute. The work was funded by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, the Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (one of the National Institutes of Health). Additional support was provided through a Canadian Institutes of Health Research fellowship.Julien cautioned that the work might not, by itself, be the final answer that shows how to make an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine — but it is a step in the right direction. Most likely, Julien said, any future HIV/AIDS vaccine would combine multiple biological components in order to give the broadest possible protection against the virus.He added that their candidate molecule was able to achieve the desired immune reactions in the test tube, and they are currently testing it in animals to see if it is able to kick start the desired immune response. If those experiments go well, he said, further studies will examine whether it can protect animals against infection, and human trials for safety and vaccine efficacy would be next — though it may be years before those results are known.While designing a vaccine against any pathogen is a long, hard process, HIV has been particularly difficult, and despite decades of efforts and hundreds of millions of dollars spent in the process, we still do not yet have an effective vaccine that can prevent infection.

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Lifesaving HIV treatment could reach millions more people following landmark study

July 4, 2013 — Millions more people could get access to life-saving HIV drug therapy, following a landmark study led by Australian researchers based at the Kirby Institute at the University of New South Wales (UNSW).The researchers have found a lower daily dose of an important HIV drug therapy is safe and as effective in suppressing the virus as the standard recommended dose.The findings have been presented at the International AIDS Society Conference in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.”This has the potential to affect the treatment of millions of HIV positive people,” says UNSW Professor Sean Emery, the protocol chairperson of the study, known as ENCORE1 and Head of the Therapeutic and Vaccine Research Program at the Kirby Institute.”A reduced daily dose should translate into a lower cost of treatment and permit more effective and efficient use of health care resources. Essentially, more people could receive this life-saving treatment for the same amount of funding.”HIV-positive people from 13 countries in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and Latin America took part in the trial. Half these people took two-thirds of the current standard daily dose of the antiretroviral (ART) efavirenz, a commonly used treatment for HIV; the other half took the standard daily dose. The 630 participants were observed regularly for a year. The results indicate that a reduction in daily dose of one third is both safe and effective compared to the higher dose currently recommended for people with HIV infection.The research was part of a program funded with a grant of US$12.42 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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HIV-derived antibacterial shows promise against drug-resistant bacteria

June 19, 2013 — A team of researchers at the University of Pittsburgh has developed antibacterial compounds, derived from the outer coating of HIV, that could be potential treatments for drug-resistant bacterial infections and appear to avoid generating resistance. These new agents are quite small, making them inexpensive and easy to manufacture.The research was published in the June 2013 issue of the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.The first of many probable applications will likely be the chronic bacterial infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients “that frequently develop resistance to all standard antibiotics, and are the leading cause of death in these patients,” says senior author Ronald Montelaro.The lead compound shows powerful antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of diverse pathogenic bacteria that are resistant to most antibiotics. These agents, called engineered cationic antimicrobial peptides (eCAPs) “may be applicable to treatment of other respiratory infections, topical infections, and systemic infections,” says Montelaro.The genesis of the new agent was basic research on HIV envelope protein structure and function, says Montelaro. As part of this research, “we identified highly conserved unique protein sequences that were predicted by computer modeling to assume structures characteristic of natural antibacterial peptides. Since antibacterial peptides specifically target and disrupt the integrity and function of bacterial membranes, we thought that these similar peptide sequences in the HIV envelope protein might contribute to toxicity and death in infected cells by altering cell membranes.”The team engineered the original HIV peptides for greater effectiveness and smaller size, the latter to reduce manufacturing expenses. The engineering involved modifying amino acid content (they contain just two different amino acids), peptide length, charge, and hydrophobicity. The current paper describes the third generation peptides. The lead agent contains just 12 amino acid residues.”Another potential application is biodefense, where eCAPs may be used as a rapid postexposure aerosol treatment in individuals after exposure to aerosolized pathogens, where the goal of immediate treatment would be to rapidly reduce bacterial dose from a lethal to a nonlethal or subclinical level,” says Montelaro.

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From hot springs to HIV, same protein complexes are hijacked to promote viruses

June 10, 2013 — Biologists from Indiana University and Montana State University have discovered a striking connection between viruses such as HIV and Ebola and viruses that infect organisms called archaea that grow in volcanic hot springs. Despite the huge difference in environments and a 2 billion year evolutionary time span between archaea and humans, the viruses hijack the same set of proteins to break out of infected cells.In eukaryotes — the group that includes plants and animals — and in archaea — micro-organisms with no defined nucleus in their cellular construction — viruses co-opt a group of important protein complexes called the Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport, or ESCRT.The researchers were studying Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus, or STIV, which infects Sulfolobus solfataricus, a species of archaea called a thermophile that can be found in volcanic springs, such those in Yellowstone National Park. Thermophiles are micro-organisms that survive in extremely hot environments. The researchers found that, as with a range of viruses that infect humans, STIV is also dependent upon its host’s ESCRT machinery to complete its life cycle.”The new work yields insight into the evolution of the relationship between hosts and viruses and, more importantly, presents us with a new and simple model system to study how viruses can hijack and utilize cellular machineries,” said Stephen D. Bell, professor in the IU Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry and Department of Biology. Bell is co-lead author on the paper that appears today in early online editions of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.The researchers looked for interactions between STIV and ESCRT proteins by using a technique in molecular biology called two-hybrid screening, which identifies binding interactions between two proteins or a protein and a DNA molecule. After finding two examples where viral proteins (the major capsid protein B345 and the viral protein C92) interacted with ESCRT proteins (SSO0619 and SSO0910), epiflouresence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine exactly where ESCRT protein components localized in STIV-infected cells.Epiflouresence microscopy uncovered spots of the ESCRT protein Vps4 in STIV-infected S. solfataricus cells, while no Vps4 was found after similar analysis in uninfected cells. In testing with transmission electron microscopy, the researchers identified Vps4 localized in the seven-sided pyramid-like structures that form in the membrane of S. solfataricus prior to viruses causing cell breakdown when the viral protein C92 expressed. …

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Unusual antibodies in cows suggest new ways to make medicines for people

June 6, 2013 — Humans have been raising cows for their meat, hides and milk for millennia. Now it appears that the cow immune system also has something to offer. A new study led by scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) focusing on an extraordinary family of cow antibodies points to new ways to make human medicines.”These antibodies’ structure and their mechanism for creating diversity haven’t been seen before in other animals’ antibodies,” said Vaughn V. Smider, assistant professor of cell and molecular biology at TSRI and principal investigator for the study, which appears as the cover story in the June 6, 2013 issue of the journal Cell.Defense Against InfectionAntibodies, part of our immune system, are large proteins that resemble lobsters — with a tail and two identical arms for grabbing specific targets (called “antigens,” often parts of bacteria or viruses). At the business end of each arm is a small set of protein loops called complementarity-determining regions or CDRs, which actually do the grabbing. By rearranging and mutating the genes that code for CDRs, an animal’s immune system can generate a vast and diverse population of antibodies — which collectively can bind to just about any of the body’s foreign invaders.In humans and in many other mammals, most of an antibody’s specificity for a target is governed by the largest CDR region, CDR H3. Researchers have been finding hints that an unusually long version of this domain can sometimes be the key to a successful defense against a dangerous infection. For example, in a study reported in Nature last August, Ian A. Wilson, who is Hansen Professor of Structural Biology and chair of the Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology at TSRI, and collaborators isolated an anti-HIV antibody with a long CDR H3 region — twice normal length — which allows it to grab a crucial structure on the virus and thereby neutralize the infectivity of most HIV strains.Waithaka Mwangi, assistant professor in the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVM) and an author on the Cell paper, suggests thinking of these long CDRs as a probe on a thin extended scaffold that can fit narrow crevices to reach and bind unique hidden pathogen determinants that ordinary antibodies cannot.Learning from NatureReports on these antibodies recently caught the interest of Smider, whose area of research includes finding new ways to generate therapeutic antibody proteins. “We started thinking about how we could make these long CDR3s that are so rare in humans, and we knew from the literature that cows make even longer ones all the time,” he said.To investigate, Smider assembled a collaboration that included the TSRI laboratories of Wilson and Peter G. …

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