Genome analysis helps in breeding more robust cows

Genome analysis of 234 bulls has put researchers, including several from Wageningen Livestock Research, on the trail of DNA variants which influence particular characteristics in breeding bulls. For example, two variants have proven responsible for disruptions to the development of embryos and for curly hair, which is disadvantageous because more ticks and parasites occur in curly hair than in short, straight hair. These are the first results of the large 1000 Bull Genomes project on which some 30 international researchers are collaborating. They report on their research in the most recent edition of the science journal Nature Genetics.Most breeding characteristics are influenced by not one but a multiplicity of variants. It is therefore important to be able to use all the variants in breeding, say the Wageningen researchers. In order to make this possible, Rianne van Binsbergen, PhD researcher at the Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre of Wageningen UR, investigated whether the genomes of all the common bulls in the Netherlands can be filled with the help of these 234 bulls. Currently, these bulls have been genotyped with markers of 50,000 or 700,000 DNA variants. The positive results indicate the direction for further research into the practical use of genome information in breeding.Dairy and beef cattle The project demonstrates how useful large-scale DNA analyses can be, says Professor Roel Veerkamp, Professor of Numerical Genetics at Wageningen University and board member of the 1000 Bull Genomes project. He emphasises that the requirements for dairy and beef cattle are becoming ever more exacting: “Until the mid nineties, a cow primarily had to produce a lot of milk. But since then, expectations have gone up. …

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