Day 8 of chemotherapy should see me starting to feel better. Yesterday was the day of feeling like death warmed up! Back ache, bile and metalic taste, nausea, anxiousness, fatigue and unable to sleep longer than a couple of hours at a time. Today after taking medication to fend off most of the above symptoms I am hoping to come good and enjoy the sunshine that has appeared outside! Expected temperature will be 16 degrees celcius and sunny – a perfect Winter day!Monday brought a wonderful surprise for me – my daughter Jo invited me to a high tea at the beautiful Windsor Hotel, Melbourne. I caught the bus that has replaced all trains for 2 weeks while school holidays are on and so that VLine can work on the rail …Read more
What do mollusks, starfish, and corals have in common? Aside from their shared marine habitat, they are all calcifiers — organisms that use calcium from their environment to create hard carbonate skeletons and shells for stability and protection.The June issue of the Biological Bulletin, published by the Marine Biological Laboratory, addresses the challenges faced by these species as ocean composition changes worldwide.As atmospheric carbon dioxide rises, the world’s oceans are becoming warmer and more acidic. This impact of global climate change threatens the survival of calcifying species because of the reduced saturation of the carbonate minerals required for calcification.The ability to calcify arose independently in many species during the Cambrian era, when calcium levels in seawater increased. This use of calcium carbonate promoted biodiversity, including the vast array of calcifiers seen today.”Today, modern calcifiers face a new and rapidly escalating crisis caused by warming and acidification of the oceans with a reduction in availability of carbonate minerals, a change driven by the increase in atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic emissions and industrialization. The CO2 itself can also directly cause metabolic stress,” write the issue’s co-editors, Maria Byrne of the University of Sydney; and Gretchen Hofmann of the University of California-Santa Barbara.Contributors to the journal address this timely issue across many taxa and from a variety of perspectives, from genomic to ecosystem-wide.Janice Lough and Neal Cantin of the Australian Institute of Marine Science review historical data on coral reefs to look at potential environmental stressors, while Philippe Dubois (Universit Libre de Bruxelles) discusses sea urchin skeletons.Other researchers address lesser-known organisms that are nevertheless critical to marine ecosystems. Abigail Smith of the University of Otago examines how bryozoans, a group of aquatic invertebrate filter-feeders, increase biodiversity by creating niche habitats, and what features make them particularly sensitive to calcium fluctuations.Evans and Watson-Wynn (California State University-East Bay) take a molecular approach in a meta-analysis showing that ocean acidification is effecting genetic changes in sea urchin larvae. Several papers take a broader population-based view by studying the effect of ocean acidification on predator-prey interactions in mollusks (Kroeker and colleagues of the University of California-Davis) and oysters (Wright and colleagues of the University of Western Sydney).”The contributors have identified key knowledge gaps in the fast evolving field of marine global change biology and have provided many important insights,” the co-editors write.By sharing research on this topic from researchers around the world, the Biological Bulletin is raising awareness of some of the greatest threats to the oceans today and emphasizing the global nature of the problem.Story Source:The above story is based on materials provided by The Marine Biological Laboratory. The original article was written by Gina Hebert. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.Read more
Australian astronomers have combined all observations of supernovae ever made to determine that the strength of gravity has remained unchanged over the last nine billion years.Newton’s gravitational constant, known as G, describes the attractive force between two objects, together with the separation between them and their masses. It has been previously suggested that G could have been slowly changing over the 13.8 billion years since the Big Bang.If G has been decreasing over time, for example, this would mean that Earth’s distance to the Sun was slightly larger in the past, meaning that we would experience longer seasons now compared to much earlier points in Earth’s history.But researchers at Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne have now analysed the light given off by 580 supernova explosions in the nearby and far Universe and have shown that the strength of gravity has not changed.”Looking back in cosmic time to find out how the laws of physics may have changed is not new” Swinburne Professor Jeremy Mould said. “But supernova cosmology now allows us to do this with gravity.”A Type 1a supernova marks the violent death of a star called a white dwarf, which is as massive as our Sun but packed into a ball the size of our Earth.Our telescopes can detect the light from this explosion and use its brightness as a ‘standard candle’ to measure distances in the Universe, a tool that helped Australian astronomer Professor Brian Schmidt in his 2011 Nobel Prize winning work, discovering the mysterious force Dark Energy.Professor Mould and his PhD student Syed Uddin at the Swinburne Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing and the ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) assumed that these supernova explosions happen when a white dwarf reaches a critical mass or after colliding with other stars to ‘tip it over the edge’.”This critical mass depends on Newton’s gravitational constant G and allows us to monitor it over billions of years of cosmic time — instead of only decades, as was the case in previous studies,” Professor Mould said.Despite these vastly different time spans, their results agree with findings from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment that has been measuring the distance between Earth and the Moon since NASA’s Apollo missions in the 1960s and has been able to monitor possible variations in G at very high precision.”Our cosmological analysis complements experimental efforts to describe and constrain the laws of physics in a new way and over cosmic time.” Mr Uddin said.In their current publication, the Swinburne researchers were able to set an upper limit on the change in Newton’s gravitational constant of 1 part in 10 billion per year over the past nine billion years.The ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) is a collaboration between The Australian National University, The University of Sydney, The University of Melbourne, Swinburne University of Technology, the University of Queensland, The University of Western Australia and Curtin University, the latter two participating together as the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research. CAASTRO is funded under the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence program, with additional funding from the seven participating universities and from the NSW State Government’s Science Leveraging Fund.The research is published this month in the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia.Story Source:The above story is based on materials provided by Swinburne University of Technology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.Read more
When a heart gets damaged, such as during a major heart attack, there’s no easy fix. But scientists working on a way to repair the vital organ have now engineered tissue that closely mimics natural heart muscle that beats, not only in a lab dish but also when implanted into animals. They presented their latest results at the 247th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS) in Dallas this week.”Repairing damaged hearts could help millions of people around the world live longer, healthier lives,” said Nasim Annabi, Ph.D. Right now, the best treatment option for patients with major heart damage — which can be caused by severe heart failure, for example — is an organ transplant. But there are far more patients on waitlists for a transplant than there are donated hearts. Even if a patient receives a new heart, complications can arise.The ideal solution would be to somehow repair the tissue, which can get damaged over time when arteries are clogged and starve a part of the heart of oxygen. Scientists have been searching for years for the best fix. The quest has been confounded by a number of factors that come into play when designing a complex organ or tissue.Simple applications, such as engineered skin, are already in use or in clinical trials. But building tissue for an organ as complicated as the heart requires a lot more research. To address this challenge and engineer complex 3-D tissues, researchers at the Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School in Boston and the University of Sydney in Australia were able to combine a novel elastic hydrogel with microscale technologies to create an artificial cardiac tissue that mimics the mechanical and biological properties of the native heart.”Our hearts are more than just a pile of cells,” said Ali Khademhosseini, Ph.D., who is at Harvard Medical School. …Read more
Exposure to passive smoking in childhood causes irreversible damage to the structure of children’s arteries, according to a study published online today in the European Heart Journal.The thickening of the arteries’ walls associated with being exposed to parents’ smoke, means that these children will be at greater risk of heart attacks and strokes in later life. The researchers from Tasmania, Australia and Finland say that exposure to both parents smoking in childhood adds an extra 3.3 years to the age of blood vessels when the children reach adulthood.The study is the first to follow children through to adulthood in order to examine the association between exposure to parental smoking and increased carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) — a measurement of the thickness of the innermost two layers of the arterial wall — in adulthood. It adds further strength to the arguments for banning smoking in areas where children may be present, such as cars.The study was made up of 2401 participants in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study, which started in 1980, and 1375 participants in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study, which started in 1985 in Australia. The children were aged between three and 18 at the start of the studies. The researchers asked questions about parents smoking habits and they used ultrasound to measure the thickness of the children’s artery walls once they had reached adulthood.The researchers found that carotid IMT in adulthood was 0.015 mm thicker in those exposed to both parents smoking than in those whose parents did not smoke, increasing from an average of 0.637 mm to 0.652 mm.”Our study shows that exposure to passive smoke in childhood causes a direct and irreversible damage to the structure of the arteries. Parents, or even those thinking about becoming parents, should quit smoking. This will not only restore their own health but also protect the health of their children into the future,” said Dr Seana Gall, a research fellow in cardiovascular epidemiology at the Menzies Research Institute Tasmania and the University of Tasmania.”While the differences in artery thickness are modest, it is important to consider that they represent the independent effect of a single measure of exposure — that is, whether or not the parents smoked at the start of the studies — some 20 years earlier in a group already at greater risk of heart disease. For example, those with both parents smoking were more likely, as adults, to be smokers or overweight than those whos parents didn’t smoke.”The results took account of other factors that could explain the association such as education, the children’s smoking habits, physical activity, body mass index, alcohol consumption and biological cardiovascular risk factors such as blood pressure and cholesterol levels in adulthood.Interestingly, the study did not show an effect if only one parent smoked. “We think that the effect was only apparent with both parents smoking because of the greater overall dose of smoke these children were exposed to,” said Dr Gall. “We can speculate that the smoking behaviour of someone in a house with a single adult smoking is different. …Read more
Prof van Zandwijk says he does not want to raise false hope, but he is cautiously optimistic the treatment will work.”I think the whole concept is sound and we feel very reassured.”While our preclinical research was confined to mesothelioma, we hope that this new approach to cancer treatment will also inhibit other tumour types.”Speaking at the launch, Federal Health Minister Tanya Plibersek said: “This will allow further research into the most promising treatment for mesothelioma yet discovered. It means that we might have a cure in a few years.”Mentioning the sadness of losing a family friend to the disease, she said: “Anyone who has been touched by mesothelioma, and there are so many Australians who have been, will be so excited about this. …Read more
Sep. 3, 2013 — A global study has found that many patients don’t know they have hypertension and, even if they do, too few are receiving adequate drug therapy for their hypertension.This is true in high income countries, like Canada, as well as middle and low income countries, say an international team of researchers led by the Population Health Research Institute (PHRI) of McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences.The report, which was published today by JAMA, the journal of the American Medical Association, is part of the PURE (Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological) study.”Our study indicates over half of people with hypertension are unaware of their condition and, amongst those identified, very few are taking enough treatment to control their blood pressure,” said Dr. Clara Chow, lead author, a member of PHRI and an associate professor of medicine of Sydney University and the George Institute for Global Health in Australia.Dr. Salim Yusuf, senior author and professor of medicine of McMaster University’s Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, added that drug treatments that work to control hypertension are well known, however this study found only about a third of patients who are aware of their condition were achieving target blood pressure control.”Blood pressure lowering drugs are generally inexpensive and commonly available treatments,” said Yusuf. “However only a third of patients commenced on treatment are on enough treatment to control their blood pressure. This is worst in low income countries, but significant in high and middle income countries too.”This is important because hypertension or high blood pressure is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease, which is associated with at least 7.6 million deaths per year worldwide.Participants in the PURE study included 154,000 adults between 35 and 70 years old, with and without a history of heart disease or stroke, from 17 high, middle and low-income countries.Each participant had their blood pressure measured and medication use recorded, along with information about their age, gender, education, and key risk factors, including whether they knew they had hypertension. The study found 46.5% of those with hypertension were aware of the diagnosis, while blood pressure was controlled among 32.5% of those being treated.The authors could only guess at potential solutions for the poor detection and inadequate treatment of hypertension.”The findings are disturbing and indicate a need for systematic efforts to better detect those with high blood pressure,” said Yusuf. “Early use of combination therapies, that is, two or more types of blood pressure-lowering treatments taken together, may be required.”Yusuf is the executive director of the PHRI which initiated the PURE study, the only multi-country study of its kind. The study was funded by more than 25 organizations including the Canadian Institutes for Health Research, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario, similar organizations in several countries and by unrestricted grants from several pharmaceutical companies.Read more
Aug. 26, 2013 — Stuttering may be more common than previously thought, but preschool stutterers fair better than first thought, a study by The University of Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and The University of Sydney has found.A study of over 1600 children, which followed the children from infancy to four years old, found the cumulative incidence of stuttering by four years old was 11 per cent, more than twice what has previously been reported.However, the study refutes the long held view that suggests developmental stuttering is associated with a range of poorer outcomes in the preschool period. Interestingly, the study found the reverse was true, with stuttering associated with better language development, non-verbal skills with no identifiable effect on the child’s mental health or temperament at four years old.Surprisingly, researchers found that recovery from stuttering was low, 6.3 per cent, 12 months after onset. Rates of recovery were higher in boys than girls, and in those who did not repeat whole words at onset than those who did. The study boys were more likely to develop stuttering.Lead researcher, Professor Sheena Reilly said parents could be happy in knowing that they can take a ‘watch and wait’ approach to their child’s stuttering and it won’t be causing harm to their child’s language skills or social and emotional development. “Current best practice recommends waiting for 12 months before commencing treatment, unless the child is distressed, there is parental concern, or the child becomes reluctant to communicate. It may be that for many children treatment could be deferred slightly further,” she said.”Treatment is effective but is intensive and expensive, this watchful recommendation would therefore help target allocation of scarce resources to the small number of children who do not resolve and experience adverse outcomes, secure in the knowledge that delaying treatment for a year or slightly longer has been shown not to compromise treatment efficacy.”Due to the low rates of recovery in the study, researchers were unable to determine what predicts which kids will recover from stuttering, but say this will be the focus of research moving forward.The study was published in Pediatrics.Read more
Aug. 22, 2013 — In an unexpected finding, scientists have linked the activation of a stress gene in immune-system cells to the spread of breast cancer to other parts of the body.Researchers say the study suggests this gene, called ATF3, may be the crucial link between stress and cancer, including the major cause of cancer death — its spread, or metastasis. Previous public health studies have shown that stress is a risk factor for cancer.Researchers already know that ATF3 is activated, or expressed, in response to stressful conditions in all types of cells. Under typical circumstances, turning on ATF3 can actually cause normal and benign cells to commit suicide if the cells decide that the stressors, such as irradiation and a lack of oxygen, have irrevocably damaged the cells.This research suggests, however, that cancer cells somehow coax immune-system cells that have been recruited to the site of a tumor to express ATF3. Though it’s still unclear how, ATF3 promotes the immune cells to act erratically and give cancer an escape route from a tumor to other areas of the body.”It’s like what Pogo said: ‘We have met the enemy, and he is us,'” said Tsonwin Hai, professor of molecular and cellular biochemistry at The Ohio State University and senior author of the study. “If your body does not help cancer cells, they cannot spread as far. So really, the rest of the cells in the body help cancer cells to move, to set up shop at distant sites. And one of the unifying themes here is stress.”Hai and colleagues first linked the expression of the ATF3 gene in immune-system cells to worse outcomes among a sample of almost 300 breast-cancer patients. They followed with animal studies and found that mice lacking the ATF3 gene had less extensive metastasis of breast cancer to their lungs than did normal mice that could activate ATF3.This stress gene could one day function as a drug target to combat cancer metastasis if additional studies bear out these results, Hai said. In the meantime, she said the results provide important insights into how cells in a tumor use their signaling power to coopt the rest of the body into aiding cancer’s survival and movement to distant organs.The research is published in a recent issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.Hai, a member in the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, has studied ATF3 in cancer cells for years. …Read more
Aug. 2, 2013 — Researchers from the Gene and Stem Cell Therapy Program at Sydney’s Centenary Institute have confirmed that, far from being “junk,” the 97 per cent of human DNA that does not encode instructions for making proteins can play a significant role in controlling cell development.And in doing so, the researchers have unravelled a previously unknown mechanism for regulating the activity of genes, increasing our understanding of the way cells develop and opening the way to new possibilities for therapy.Using the latest gene sequencing techniques and sophisticated computer analysis, a research group led by Professor John Rasko AO and including Centenary’s Head of Bioinformatics, Dr William Ritchie, has shown how particular white blood cells use non-coding DNA to regulate the activity of a group of genes that determines their shape and function. The work is published today in the scientific journal Cell.”This discovery, involving what was previously referred to as “junk,” opens up a new level of gene expression control that could also play a role in the development of many other tissue types,” Rasko says. “Our observations were quite surprising and they open entirely new avenues for potential treatments in diverse diseases including cancers and leukemias.”The researchers reached their conclusions through studying introns — non-coding sequences which are located inside genes.As part of the normal process of generating proteins from DNA, the code for constructing a particular protein is printed off as a strip of genetic material known as messenger RNA (mRNA). It is this strip of mRNA which carries the instructions for making the protein from the gene in the nucleus to the protein factories or ribosomes in the body of the cell.But these mRNA strips need to be processed before they can be used as protein blueprints. Typically, any non-coding introns must be cut out to produce the final sequence for a functional protein. Many of the introns also include a short sequence — known as the stop codon — which, if left in, stops protein construction altogether. Retention of the intron can also stimulate a cellular mechanism which breaks up the mRNA containing it.Dr Ritchie was able to develop a computer program to sort out mRNA strips retaining introns from those which did not. Using this technique the lead molecular biologist of the team, Dr Justin Wong, found that mRNA strips from many dozens of genes involved in white blood cell function were prone to intron retention and consequent break down. This was related to the levels of the enzymes needed to chop out the intron. …Read more
July 17, 2013 — A balanced plant-based diet provides the same quality of fuel for athletes as a meat-based diet, provided vegetarians seek out other sources of certain nutrients that are more commonly found in animal products, according to a presentation at the 2013 Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) Annual Meeting & Expo®.The research was compiled by Dilip Ghosh, Ph.D., director of Nutriconnect in Sydney, Australia. He was unable to attend the meeting, so his presentation was given by Debasis Bagchi, Ph.D., director of innovation and clinical affairs at Iovate Health Sciences International Inc. in Oakville, Ontario, Canada.Ghosh’s research noted that vegetarian athletes have been present throughout history. Perhaps most notably, analysis of the bones of Roman Gladiators indicate they may have been vegetarians. There are several notable vegetarian athletes today, such as marathon runners Bart Yasso and Scott Jurek, and pro Ironman triathlete Brendan Brazier.The key to success, Ghosh found, is that vegetarian athletes must find ways within their diet to reach the acceptable macronutrient distribution for all athletes, which he breaks down as carbohydrates (45-65 percent), fat (20-35 percent) and protein (10-35 percent).”Vegetarian athletes can meet their dietary needs from predominantly or exclusively plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate,” Ghosh wrote in his presentation.Vegetarians should find non-meat sources of iron, creatine, zinc, vitamin B12, vitamin D and calcium because the main sources of these typically are animal products and could be lacking in their diets. Vegetarian women, in particular, are at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance. In addition, vegetarians as a group have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations, which may affect high-level exercise performance.These deficiencies can be avoided or remedied through several food sources acceptable to the vegetarian diet, such as orange/yellow and green leafy vegetables, fruits, fortified breakfast cereals, soy drinks, nuts and milk products (for vegetarians who consume dairy).Ghosh noted that his conclusions are based on observational and short-term interventional studies, but there needs to be a well-controlled long-term study to further assess the impact of a vegetarian diet on athletic performance.The presentation also included a discussion of nutrition for bodybuilders, defined as athletes whose primary goals are to maximize muscle size, optimize fat and minimize body fat.Phil Apong, senior formulation specialist/researcher at Iovate Health Sciences, said dietary recommendations for bodybuilders depend on many factors, such as genetics, age, gender and body size. But in general the current recommendation is 1.4 to 2.0 grams of protein per kilogram (g/kg) of body weight — about 1 gram per pound. Ideally a bodybuilder should seek to eat that amount in increments of 20 to 25 grams of high-quality protein throughout the day to maximize protein synthesis in muscle in response to training.However, Apong noted those benefits did not exist past the limit of 2.4 g/kg.”This is important because it seems to indicate there is an upper cap of protein intake that seems to promote protein synthesis to the maximum level and if you exceed this upper cap of protein level intake, you will not be pushing protein synthesis any further,” Apong said. “In fact, you’re going to be oxidizing protein for energy production.”Read more
May 31, 2013 — A major question in ecology has centered on the role of microbes in regulating ecosystem function. Now, in research published ahead of print in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Brajesh Singh of the University of Western Sydney, Australia, and collaborators show how changes in the populations of methanotrophic bacteria can have consequences for methane mitigation at ecosystem levels.”Ecological theories developed for macro-ecology can explain the microbial regulation of the methane cycle,” says Singh.In the study, as grasslands, bogs, and moors became forested, a group of type II methanotrophic bacterium, known as USC alpha, became dominant on all three land use types, replacing other methanotrophic microbes, and oxidizing, thus mitigating methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, explains Singh. “The change happened because we changed the niches of the microbial community.”The pre-eminence of USC alpha bacteria in this process demonstrates that the so-called “selection hypothesis” from macro-ecology “explains the changes the investigators saw in the soil functions of their land-use types,” says Singh. The selection hypothesis states that a small number of key species, rather than all species present determine key functions in ecosystems. “This knowledge could provide the basis for incorporation of microbial data into predictive models, as has been done for plant communities,” he says.”Evidence of microbial regulation of the biogeochemical cycle provides the basis for including microbial data in predictive models studying the effects of global changes,” says Singh.Singh warns that one should not take the results to mean that biodiversity is not important. Without microbial biodiversity, the raw materials — different microbial species with different capabilities — for adapting to changes in the environment would be unavailable, he says.Read more
May 29, 2013 — University of Leicester researchers have contributed to a landmark study which has revealed a new way to treat strokes caused by bleeding inside the brain.
The study found that intensive blood pressure lowering in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage, the most serious type of stroke, reduced the risk of major disability and improved chances of recovery by as much as 20 per cent.
The study, which involved more than 2800 patients from 140 hospitals around the world, was announced today at the European Stroke Conference in London, and published in The New England Journal of Medicine.
Professor Thompson Robinson, Deputy Head of the University of Leicester’s Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, was the UK co-ordinator for the study and co-authored the paper.
The study was led by the George Institute for Global Health, in Sydney, Australia.
Professor Thompson Robinson said: “Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the UK and the most common adult cause of neurological disability. Approximately 1 million people are living with the consequences of stroke in the United Kingdom, a third with life-changing severe disability. Every year an estimated 152,000 people in the UK have a stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage — spontaneous bleeding within the brain most often due to hypertension — accounts for at least 10 per cent of all cases.
“Intracerebral haemorrhage kills about half of those affected within one month and leaves most survivors disabled, and to date there is no specific treatment for this type of stroke.
“The results of the study show that intensively reducing high blood pressure within 6 hours of onset of a bleeding-related stroke is safe, and results in a significant shift from being dead and dependent to being alive and independent after stroke. Because it involves treatment with already available blood pressure-lowering treatments, the results should be easy to implement in all hospitals and be of benefit to patients. It is important to reinforce that stroke is a medical emergency, and individuals who suspect that they may have had a stroke should dial 999 and seek urgent medical attention.
“Leicester has a long-standing interest in acute stroke and blood pressure research, and hosts the NIHR Trent Stroke Local Research Network. There are many opportunities for Leicester patients presenting with stroke to participate in research to improve outcomes for future patients with stroke.”
Professor Bruce Neal of The George Institute and The University of Sydney said the study challenges previous thought about blood pressure lowering in intracerebral haemorrhage.
He said: “The study findings will mean significant changes to guidelines for stroke management worldwide. They show that early intensive blood pressure lowering, using widely available therapies, can significantly improve the outcome of this illness.
“We hope to see hospital emergency departments around the world implement the new treatment as soon as possible. By lowering blood pressure, we can slow bleeding in the brain, reduce damage and enhance recovery.
“The study findings are tremendously exciting because they provide a safe and efficient treatment to improve the likelihood of a recovery without serious disability — a major concern for those who have experienced stroke.
“The only treatment option to date has been risky brain surgery, so this research is a very welcome advance.”
The study found patients who suffered an acute intracerebral haemorrhage and received the blood pressure lowering treatment were better off from both a physical and psychological perspective.Read more